【新三才网讯】炸鱼薯条 Fish and Chips
如果我们问问身边的英国朋友，英国人最喜欢的食品是什么？他们中一定会有人告诉你，是Fish and Chips，就是炸鱼薯条。对于有着悠久烹调历史和吃文化的中国人，我想大家一定想知道，这么简单的食品是如何成为英国人的最爱，在今天的节目中，我们就给大家介绍一下英国的Fish and Chips 炸鱼薯条。 If you ask an English friend, what is their favorite food, I bet they would say it is Fish and Chips. For Chinese people, it is hard to imagine how such a simple food becomes a national dish of English people. Today we will tell you the story of Fish and Chips.
人们吃炸鱼的历史已有几个世纪了，但将油炸鱼条和薯条放在一起吃却是英国人在维多丽亚时代首创的。 Fried fish had been eaten for many centuries, but the coming together of deep-fried fish and chips as an inexpensive, nutritious takeaway meal is definitely an English initiative of Victory era.
1860年，在伦敦东区的Cleveland 大街，Joseph Malin 开了第一家炸鱼薯条店。一位在Oldham附近的市场上出售炸鱼薯条的兰开郡商人自称是世界上第一个开设炸鱼薯条店，但是他比Joseph Malin晚了三年。究竟是谁发明了薯条，说法不一。 It was on Cleveland Street in London’s East End that Joseph Malin opened what was almost certainly the first fish-and-chip shop in England in 1860.A Lancashire entrepreneur from near Oldham who sold fish and chips from a market stall, which he claimed was the first such establishment in the world, had been pipped at the post by about three years.There are a number of lenged stories as to who invented chips.
有一个故事中这样说，有一天，一位住在弗莱芒地区的妇女，弗莱芒在比利时境内，没有搞到足够全家人吃的新鲜的鱼。那时，穷人能吃得起的鱼是很小的河鱼。这位家庭主妇就把土豆巧妙的切成了鱼的形状，炸了起来，代替鱼。 One tells of how a Flemish housewife in what is now Belgium was unable one day to get any fresh fish to feed her family. The favoured types of fish for poor families being small river fish no bigger than whitebait, she artfully cut up some potatoes into the shape of the fish and fried those instead.
我们无法知道妇女的家人是否被这些假鱼骗了过去，但是这个省吃俭用而又足智多谋的家庭主妇却在无意间发明了一种全新的廉价方便食品。 Whether the family was successfully fooled isn’t known, but a thrifty and resourceful housewife had unwittingly invented a new form of cheap fast food.
在欧洲，炸鱼的历史比炸土豆长。原因很简单，因为土豆的历史短。17世纪，从葡萄牙和西班牙逃亡的犹太人将炸鱼条带进了北欧。 Frying as a cooking method for fish has a much older history in Europe than the frying of potatoes, for the simple reason that potatoes haven’t been around as long. Deep-fried fish came to northern Europe with the movements of Jewish refugees from Portugal and Spain in the 17th century.
它简单易做，在白色的鱼上裹上薄薄的一层面粉，炸后产生的酥脆的口感，与中国餐的糖醋鸡，古老肉，墨西哥的玉米面豆卷一样能被举世接受。 It is a quick and simple way to cook white fish, and a little light flouring of the surface results in a temptingly crisp-coated final result, crispness of texture being a virtually universal taste in cooked food, from Chinese sweet-and-sour dishes to the tacos of Mexico.
炸鱼薯条的传统包装是旧报纸，一个节俭的习俗，现在也常常被想起，当咒骂杂志报纸的时侯，人们还会说：明天油炸鱼条和薯条的包装纸。 The traditional wrapping for a portion was old newspaper, a thrifty custom that is still recalled when people scornfully refer to the press as “tomorrow’s fish-and-chip wrapping”.
事实上，基于卫生的原因，从上个世纪八十年代开始，炸鱼薯条店已不允许再用真报纸了。人们认识到报纸上的油墨会渗入食品。 In fact, on hygiene grounds, chip-shops haven’t been allowed to use real newspaper since the 1980s, when it was decided that the possible absorption of newsprint by the food wasn’t a good idea.
薯条店很快在伦敦及英格兰北部变成典型的家庭生意，由工薪阶层开办，消费者也是工薪阶层。当没有店面时，买卖交易在住宅的前屋进行，这恐怕在今天是不可能通过环镜卫生和安全检查的。 The fish-and-chip shop soon became a typical family business, run by and for working people, in London to some extent but especially in the north of England. Where there were no shop premises, the trade would be carried on from people’s front rooms, a practice hardly likely to be approved by today’s environmental health and safety inspectors!
很快，每一个工人社区都至少有一家鱼条店，为工厂的工人，倒班的工人在漫长的工作日中提供能量。1931年，Bradford 的一家鱼条店，生意好极了，高峰期时，甚至需要守门人维持秩序。 In time, practically every working community had at least one chip-shop, fortifying factory employees and other shift workers through the lengthy working day. In 1931, one Bradford fish and chip shop became so popular, it had to use a doorman to control the queue at peak times.
Fish and chips played a vital role in nourishing the country during the second world war. They were never subject to rationing, like other basic foodstuffs, although a shortage of supplies meant that their opening hours were inevitably curtailed.
Quite often, they were only able to offer chips, and when word got out that a consignment of fish had come in, it was like Christmas had come early.
It has often been said in recent years that fish and chips may well be entering a period of decline, being under attack as a favoured fast-food option from Indian and Chinese takeaways. Dwindling stocks of the fish that the northern chippies in particular dealt in – cod, haddock and plaice – have sent prices up, and led ethical consumers to turn away from them.
Health concerns arising from the type of oil used for deep-frying was another factor. Despite all these challenges, though, the chippie remains an enduring feature of many town and city streets.
There are still nearly 12,000 of them all over the UK; Approximately 10% of all potatoes – 500,000 tonnes – eaten in the UK are sold through fish and chip shops.More than 250 million portions are eaten in the UK every year.and they would certainly be missed if they were to disappear overnight.
An English Gentleman Tim Nicholls living in America gave the following comments on the Fish and Chips recently: There is nothing in the World that can touch British Fish and Chips. You can keep your French Fries and oven chips!!!! I live abroad these days and one of the foods I miss the most from good old blighty is Fish and Chips from a chip shop. Nothing like it, delicious. And you can throw in a pickled onion or two as well please.
当你在英国生活几年后，你也会喜欢fish and chips 的。尤其你去海边玩上一天之后，你没吃上炸鱼薯条，你会觉得你像白去了一趟海边一样。
You will like the fish and chips after you live here for a while， particularly after a whole day you visited the seaside, if you haven’t had the fish and chips, it seems that you haven’t been at the seaside at all.
本文参考了Icons of England 网站提供的信息。
Some of the information was from Icons of England web page.